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楷书四大家——柳公权 Four Great Regular Script Masters—Liu Gongquan

编辑:网络孔子学院 录入:suemiao 来源:http://www.chinese.cn 2011-06-21 16:59:18 

 

 

 

  柳公权(公元778-865),唐朝最后一位大书法家,京兆华原(今陕西耀县)人,世称“柳少师”。他二十九岁进士及第,在地方担任一个低级官吏,后来偶然被唐穆宗看见他的笔迹,就被朝廷召到长安,那时,柳公权已四十多岁。穆宗常问柳公权用笔之法,公权答云:“用笔在心,心正则笔正。”时穆宗荒纵,为之改容,悟其笔谏也。


  Liu Gongquan (778-865 AD), born in Huayuan (today’s Yao County in Shannxi Province), was the last calligraphy master of the Tang Dynasty. He once held an official post as high as Junior Preceptor of the Crown Prince (taizi shaoshi), and was recognized as Liu Shaoshi. Liu became a Jinshi ("No. 3" in the Imperial examinations) when he was 29 years old and then served as a junior official in local government. By chance, Emperor Muzong of Tang saw and admired his handwriting, and he was summoned to Chang’an, the Tang Dynasty''s capital. At that time, Liu was already in his 40s. Once the emperor asked Liu how a person could develop good calligraphy. Liu replied “Holding the brush is based on the heart. If the heart is proper then the brush will be proper and the calligraphy will be right. The Emperor saw this as criticism of his misconducts.

 

 

 


  他的字在唐穆宗、敬宗、文宗三朝一直受重视,他官居侍书,仕途通达。他书法初学王羲之,以后遍阅近代书法,学习颜真卿, 融会自己新意,然后自成一家,自创独树一帜的“柳体”,为后世楷模。他的字取匀衡瘦硬,追魏碑斩钉截铁势,点画爽利挺秀,骨力遒劲,结体严紧。他的楷书,较之颜体,则稍均匀瘦硬,故有“颜筋柳骨”之称。


  His calligraphic works were highly valued during the reigns of the Emperors Muzong, Jingzong and Wenzong. He served as a royal calligrapher and had a successful official career in the court. He first learned the handwriting of Wang Xizhi. As he read more calligraphic books closer to his time, he switched to the handwriting of Yan Zhengqing and blended into it his own creative style—Liu Style. His characters are of moderate build, not as chubby as those of Yan Zhenqing. The strokes are in tightly knitted character in the middle and stretched on all sides. And the thickness of the strokes is equally emphasized, known as the "muscle of Yan and bone of Liu".


  柳公权享年八十岁,一共臣事七位皇帝,历经唐代宗大历十三年(公元778年)—唐懿宗咸通六年(公元865年),最后以太子少师死于任上。

  Liu served in many government official posts for seven emperors—from the 13th year of the Dali Period of the Emperor Taizong (778 AD) to the 6th year of the Xiantong Period of the Emperor Yizong (865 AD), and died as Junior Preceptor of the Crown Prince at age 88.


  柳公权的传世作品很多。传世碑刻有《金刚经刻石》、《玄秘塔碑》、《冯宿碑》等。其中《金刚经刻石》、《玄秘塔碑》、《神策军碑》最能代表其楷书风格。柳公权的行草书有《伏审》、《十六日》、《辱向帖》等,他们的风格仍继承王家风格,结体严谨,潇洒自然。另有墨迹《蒙诏帖》、《王献之送梨帖跋》。


  Liu left a number of calligraphic works, including Jingangjing (Paramita Sutra) Stele, Xuanmita (Mysterious Pagoda) Stele, Feng Su Stele and so on, among which, Jingangjing (Paramita Sutra) Stele, Xuanmita (Mysterious Pagoda) Stele and Shen Cejun Stele best represents his writing style. Liu’s running script and cursive hand works included Fu Shen, Shi Liu Ri and Ru Xiang Tie, which still used the style of Wang Xizhi. There are also two of his handwritten masterpieces: Meng Zhao Tie and Wang Xianzhi Song Li Tie Ba.

 

 

  Vocabulary


  楷模kǎi mó
  Idol
  值得学习的人或事物;榜样。
  A person who someone admires and whose behaviour they try to copy.

  严谨yán jǐn
  Strict
  严肃谨慎,认为自己的看法有所根据,但还有所保留。
  Describes someone who follows the rules and principles of a belief or way of living very carefully and exactly, or a belief or principle that is followed very carefully and exactly.

  偶然ǒu rán
  Fortuitous
  突然的,不是经常的;意想不到的。
  (of something that is to your advantage) Not planned, happening by chance.

 

 

 

 

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